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A high yield review of

Tiffany M. Graham, M.D.

(4th year Pathology Resident)



Table of Contents.



Benign Conditions.

Infectious Organisms.

Gastroesophageal Reflux

Intestinal Metaplasia

Pill Esophagitis.


Cancer Grading & Staging.


Table of Contents
The Basics

The Basics.

Esophagu histology
Esophagus histology
Benign Diseases

Benign Conditions.

erosion vs ulceration.JPG

Erosion vs.


This question can be very confusing for medical students and residents. Hopefully this post will help clear it up for you. Have a read!

CMV endoscopy.jpg



Biopsies of the esophagus are submitted in any case of esophageal ulceration seen on endoscopy. Common infectious causes include candida (fungal), HSV and CMV viral infections. Continue reading to learn the high yield findings to diagnose each infection.





Helicobacter Infections

(H. pylori or H. Heilmannii)

While you will encounter this much more commonly in gastric or duodenal biopsies, H. pylori infections can still present in biopsies taken of the esophagus. Continue reading to learn tips & tricks to identifying this nasty little bug

GERD diagnostic features.JPG


Reflux Disease (GERD)

Patients often present with "acid reflux" and pathologists are asked to assess for GERD. Continue reading to find out the key features for making this diagnosis.


In the setting of chronic insult to the esophagus (such as GERD), the epithelium will go through a series of histologic changes including intestinal metaplasia (Barrett esophagus), dysplasia and can eventually lead to carcinoma. Read the full post below for more details on how to identify these key entities...

Barrett Esophagus

(Intestinal Metaplasia)

Intestinal Metaplasia
Fe pill.JPG

With the wide use of so many medications in today's society, it is not uncommon to see injury due to impacted pills in the esophagus. Common medications known to cause esophageal ulcers include iron, kayexalate, sevelamer, bile acid sequestrants (Cholestyramine) and bisphosphonates. Continue reading to see more high yield findings that are key to making the correct diagnosis.

Pill Esophagitis

Esophageal Cancer.

Grading & Staging Esophageal Cancer

Tumor Grading &

Staging Requirements.

(Place cursor over an image to view the cancer staging requirements)

Index of topics

Index: Esophageal Pathology

Click on a bold face topic below to learn more.

(Non-bolded titles will be coming soon. Check again later!)


The Basics




Benign Conditions 




Neoplastic (Cancerous) Conditions

  • Benign Tumors

    • Intramural or Submucosal

    • Leiomyoma

    • Fibroma

    • Lipoma

    • Hemangioma

    • Neurofibroma

    • Lymphangioma

  • Mucosal Tumors (rarely larger than 3 cm)

    • Squamous papilloma

    • Fibrovascular polyp (with overlying epithelium)

    • Inflammatory polyp (severely inflamed mesenchyme with overlying epithelium)

  • Malignant Tumors

    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • Adenocarcinoma


Essentials for [future] Pathologists



These posts contain high yield information collected from various educational resources including textbooks, journal articles, educational websites and more. They are intended for educational use only. I strongly believe the spreading of knowledge and depth of learned information should be encouraged in today's society rather than coveted. However, membership is required to view these posts  and should be used solely for educational purposes only. It is FREE to sign up

Esophagus Posts

All High Yield Posts- Esophagus

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